Two examples of neighbourly correlations, at least one of which is not causation
1. A (good) Herald story today, about research in Michigan that found people who got on well with their neighbours were less likely to have heart attacks
2. An old Ministry of Justice report showing people who told their neighbours whenever they went away were much less likely to get burgled.
The burglary story is the one we know is mostly not causal. People who tell their neighbours whenever they go on holiday were about half as likely to have experienced a burglary, but only about one burglary in seven happened while the residents were on holiday. There must be something else about types of neighbourhoods or relationships with neighbours that explains most of the correlation.
I’m pretty confident the heart-disease story works the same way. The researchers had some possible explanations
The mechanism behind the association was not known, but the team said neighbourly cohesion could encourage physical activities such as walking, which counter artery clogging and disease.
That could be true, but is it really more likely that talking to your neighbours makes you walk around the neighbourhood or work in the garden, or that walking around the neighbourhood and working in the garden leads to talking to your neighbours? On top of that, the correlation with neighbourly cohesion was rather stronger then the correlation previously observed with walking.